What can a Water Softener Remove?
Briefly, water softeners have the ability to remove positively charged ions such as calcium, magnesium, manganese and sometimes iron.

In general, water softeners remove the hardness present in water.

As a matter of facts, water hardness represents the concentration of minerals in the water. The higher the concentration of dissolved minerals in the water, the harder the water. Typically, hardness refers to calcium ions (Ca2+) and magnesium ions (Mg2+).

Water softeners operate through the principle of ion exchange. Basically, the ions on the resin beads are exchanged with the contaminant ions in the water, which are calcium and magnesium. In addition to Ca2+ and Mg2+, water softeners can also capture other ions such as manganese and iron.

It is important to note that when the concentration of iron becomes too high, the brine usually used for resin regeneration is not effective to remove the iron accumulated in the tanks.


  • Find information on the advantages and disadvantages of using regenerated resin and see how much these services cost on this page.


When a softener is faced with water with a high iron concentration, since iron accumulates in the resin, it is important to perform a special treatment to remove the accumulated iron. These treatments are known as Iron out.

It should also be noted that water softeners also have the ability to decrease the amount of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) present in the water. While this is a benefit, it should not be taken for granted as their ability to reduce suspended solids is considered a secondary property.


In short, if you would like to learn more about the detailed operation of water softeners, the principle of regeneration and the importance of each of the steps in the regeneration process, visit this article on How Water Softeners Work - Fundamentals.

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What is Sodium Metabisulfite Used for and How Does it Work?
In water treatment, sodium metabisulfite is often used in the dechlorination stage.